Alexander the Great coins were an international currency. During his 13-year reign did Alexander mint coins in large parts of his growing empire. The cities in which many of these coin series is characterized can now be determined, the numismatic research is thus able to provide independent and often very reliable information that can supplement archaeological finds and written knowledge. Alexander the Great is one of the most popular people in Greek history and he is known for his incredible conquest of much of the known world. Throughout the Greek and Roman antique, he was often used in the literature, speeches, as well as art. In order to understand Alexander the Great, you have to know what his father Philip II had achieved during his reign, for in many ways paved the way for Philip Alexander’s greatness. Philip II became king in 360/359 BC in Macedonia, which was marked by strife and problems. He was a skilled diplomat and he managed soon to unite many of the warring parties around them. He was also a talented military man and he introduced new ways of fighting in Macedonia. In 358 BC Philip II won an important victory that increased his power considerably. Since Athens had serious internal power struggles, to Philip II without major problems attacking some of the city-states of northern Greece, which had otherwise been under Athenian influence. Over the next decades subjugated Philip II in the divided Greek world using both military and diplomacy. In 336 BC, Philip II began even an expedition to Asia Minor, but he was murdered before he could bring his plans to fruition. His son Alexander, who had spent his youth in his native Macedonia, was as 20-year-old king of Macedonia despite much controversy in Macedonia over who had the right to the throne. Alexander was ambitious and he held fast his position of power as the new Macedonian king in 335 BC, where he let Thebes destroy their attempts rebellion. In 334 BC, Alexander marched into Asia Minor with its huge army. He won an important victory over the area’s Persian governor at the Granicus River and were then able to take some of the great Greek-speaking cities in Asia Minor, who had been under Persian rule. The next big victory came in 333 BC of Issus, where Alexander proved his skills as a strategist. After this victory, Alexander had control over the entire Near East up to the Euphrates, located in modern Iraq. In 332 BC, Alexander came to Egypt which he took without major problems and founded the city of Alexandria. The Persian great king Darius III offered Alexander a peace agreement, but Alexander refused because he did not want to join the triumphal procession. In 331 BC Alexander won another victory, this time at Gaugamela and he came to one of the Persian important cities, Persepolis. He defeated shortly after the Persian great king Darius III and could say at this point to have conquered the Persian Empire. Alexander’s behaviour is characterized by his great achievements, and he began to talk about his divine heritage, and he may have thought that he was descended from Hercules, Perseus and eventually Zeus. He also began to dress like the Persian great king and introduce Persian customs. Especially the old Macedonian army was very much against Alexander’s new behaviour. In 323 BC, Alexander died, possibly of excessive drinking. He had by this time expanded his empire to India and some believe that he was planning to lead his army to the west to conquer Italy and the Mediterranean. Alexander left behind an empire, but he was not interested in how it quite convenient to be held together. He had not designated a successor so soon after his death the kingdom fell apart and was divided into different realms. The time from Alexander’s death until 31 BC (where the Roman Republic became an empire under the Augustus ) is called the Hellenistic period. Four major units came to dominate in the time just after Alexander’s death: Seleucus won a large Asian region; Ptolemy took over Egypt, Lysimachus won Thrace until his death, when his territory was dissolved and Cassander took Macedonia and Greece. The political entities during this period were not stable but the Hellenistic culture flourished. Scientists such as Archimedes lived during this period that often gets overlooked in Greek historiography.